Dependency types of the Finnish dependency parser

abbr adpos advcl advmod acomp amod appos aux auxpass cc ccomp compar comparator complm conj cop csubj csubj-cop dep det dobj ellipsis gobj iccomp infmod mark name neg nn nommod nsubj nsubj-cop num number parataxis partmod poss preconj prt punct quantmod rcmod ref rel sdep voc xcomp xsubj

This page describes the dependency types used in the Turku dependency treebank, the clinical Finnish treebank and the respective parsers. Please select a dependency type above for more information on what each individual dependency type means. Each dependency type has after its name either one or two links in square brackets. The "TDT" link directs you to all exemplars of this dependency type in Turku dependency treebank, and the "CLIN" link to those in the clinical Finnish treebank.

abbr (abbreviation dot) [CLIN]

Dots that are concidered part of an abbreviation. Only present in the clinical Finnish treebank.

adpos (adposition) [TDT][CLIN]

Adpositions (pre- and postpostions). The head word of the dependency is the nominal associated with the adposition. The head word is marked with the type nommod.
  • Hän meni ulos sateenvarjon kanssa. (kanssa)

advcl (adverbial clause) [TDT][CLIN]

Adverbial clauses, that is, non-obligatory subordinate clauses. Most often used with clauses that start with a subordinating conjunction, but also with non-obligatory non-finite clauses.
  • Tein ruokaa, kun olin käynyt kaupassa. (kun olin käynyt kaupassa)

advmod (adverb modifier) [TDT][CLIN]

Adverb modifiers. These most commonly modify verbs, nouns and other adverbs.
  • Hän juoksi nopeasti. (nopeasti)

acomp (adjective complement) [TDT][CLIN]

Adjective complements, that is, adjectives complementing verbs.
  • Hän näyttää kauniilta. (kauniilta)

amod (adjective modifier) [TDT][CLIN]

Adjective modifiers of a noun.
  • Se on mukava paikka. (mukava)

appos (apposition) [TDT][CLIN]

Appositions, most commonly noun phrases that modify another noun phrase immediately preceding it. An apposition must refer to the same entity as the head word. We distinguish between appositions and appellation modifiers, based on the cases of the words and punctuation. The dependency type used for appellation modifiers is nn.
  • Tapasin John Travoltan, näyttelijän. (näyttelijän)

aux (auxiliary) [TDT][CLIN]

Auxiliary verb. We consider a closed list of verbs, consisting of modal verbs, aikoa and in certain contexts olla, auxiliaries.
  • Olen jo lukenut kirjan. (Olen)

auxpass (passive auxiliary) [TDT][CLIN]

Passive auxiliaries. These are the auxiliary olla when they act as the auxiliary of a passive.
  • Tankki on täytetty. (on)

cc (coordinating conjunction) [TDT][CLIN]

Coordinating conjunctions. The head word of a coordination is the first coordinated element, and the coordinating conjunction depends on it.
  • Matti ja Maija tulivat kylään. (ja)

ccomp (clausal complement) [TDT][CLIN]

Finite clausal complements, that is, clauses that complement most commonly another clause. Sometimes clausal complements can also complement for example a noun phrase.
  • Sanoin, että hän tuli jo eilen. (että hän tuli jo eilen)

compar (compared element) [TDT][CLIN]

Comparative structures. The head word is the comparative adjective (or other element indicating comparison), and the dependent word is the target of comparison. This type is used together with the type comparator.
  • Hän oli iloisempi kuin sinä. (sinä)

comparator (comparator) [TDT][CLIN]

Comparative structures. The head word is the compared element, and the dependent word is the comparing operator (most commonly "kuin"). This type is used together with the type compar.
  • Hän oli iloisempi kuin sinä. (kuin)

complm (complementizer) [TDT][CLIN]

Complementizers. The head word is the main verb of a subordinate clause, the dependent word a complementizer, most commonly "että".
  • Sanoimme, että tulemme illalla. (että)

conj (conjunct) [TDT][CLIN]

Conjuncts, members of coordination. The head word of a coordination is the first conjunct, and the other conjuncts depend on it.
  • Maija söi ja joi. (joi)

cop (copula) [TDT][CLIN]

Copulas. The copula is a dependent of its predicative.
  • Taulu on kaunis. (on)

csubj (clausal subject) [TDT][CLIN]

Clausal subjects, that is, subjects that are clauses.
  • Häntä pelotti mennä kotiin. (mennä kotiin)

csubj-cop (clausal copula subject) [TDT][CLIN]

Clausal copula subjects, clauses that are themselves subjects of copula clauses.
  • On hauska käydä uimassa (käydä uimassa)

dep (dependent)[TDT][CLIN]

Dependents, where no other, more specific, dependency type seems to apply. Used in some frozen expressions and the like.

det (determiner) [TDT][CLIN]

Determiners. There are no articles in Finnish, but there are some other determiners, such as "kaikki" or "jokin".
  • Kaikki lapset leikkivät pihalla. (Kaikki)

dobj (direct object) [TDT][CLIN]

Direct objects of a verb (including direct objects of participal modifiers).
  • Pekka potkaisi palloa. (palloa)

ellipsis [TDT][CLIN]

Ellipses. This is a semantic dependency type that is not part of the syntactic tree. It encodes the relationship between a so called null token (a token that has been added to represent a missing head word) and its antecedent. Only present in Turku Dependency Treebank, not the clinical Finnish treebank.

gobj (genitive object) [TDT][CLIN]

Genitive objects of a noun with a verb counterpart.
  • Pallon potkaiseminen oli helppoa. (Pallon)

iccomp (infinitival clausal complement) [TDT][CLIN]

Infinitival clausal complements, that is, non-finite clauses that act as a complement of a verb.
  • Sain hänet itkemään. (hänet itkemään)

infmod (infinitival modifier) [TDT][CLIN]

Infinitival modifiers, which mostly modify nouns.
  • Yksi tapa syödä on käyttää puikkoja. (syödä)

mark (marker) [TDT][CLIN]

Markers of non-obligatory subordinate clauses, most commonly regular subordinating conjunctions, such as "kun" and "koska". The head word of the dependency is the main verb of the subordinate clause.
  • Olin hyvin väsynyt, kun tulin töistä. (kun)

name (multi-word named entity) [TDT][CLIN]

Multi-word named entities, such as names of people, books, movies and institutions. This is a technical dependency type not part of the syntactic tree structure, and is annotated on top of other syntactic structure where appropriate. The head word is the last word of the named entity, and the dependent is the first word of the entity.

neg (negator) [TDT][CLIN]

Negators, which most commonly negate a verb.
  • He eivät kuunnelleet meitä (eivät)

nn (noun compound modifier) [TDT][CLIN]

Noun compound modifiers. In Finnish material, the dependency type nn is used for two different purposes. Firstly, and most commonly, it is used for compounds written as two different words, be it intentional or not. Secondly, it is used for appellation modifiers, as distinguished from appositions.
  • Uusi hard rock -kappale vakuutti fanit. (hard rock)
  • Presidentti Tarja Halonen vieraili Turussa. (Presidentti)

nommod (nominal modifier) [TDT][CLIN]

Nominal modifiers, that is, nominals (nouns, adjectives, pronouns or numerals) that modify most commonly a verb or a noun. Also other head words are possible.
  • Tänä aamuna hän heräsi myöhään. (Tänä aamuna)

nsubj (nominal subject) [TDT][CLIN]

Nominal subjects. These are nominals that act as the subject of a verb or a participal modifier.
  • Pekka söi leipää. (Pekka)

nsubj-cop (nominal copula subject) [TDT][CLIN]

Nominal copula subjects. These are nominals that act as the subject of a copula verb ("olla"). The head word for the dependency is the predicative.
  • Hän on iloinen. (Hän)

num (numeric modifier) [TDT][CLIN]

Numeric modifiers of noun phrases, that is, any numerals that serve to modify a noun phrase, including cardinal and ordinal numbers, and numbers written in numeric form and in letters.
  • Söin kolme appelsiinia. (kolme)

number (element of compound number) [TDT][CLIN]

Elements of compound numbers, that is, parts of number phrases and dates.

parataxis [TDT][CLIN]

Parataxis relations. This type is used for "other sentential elements", often reported speech and clauses after colons and semicolons.
  • "Kävin eilen uimassa", Mikko kertoi. (kävin)

partmod (participal modifier) [TDT][CLIN]

Participal modifiers, most commonly of nouns, but also modifying a verb is possible in some cases.
  • Hyvin kuorrutettu kakku oli herkullinen. (Hyvin kuorrutettu)

poss (possessive, genitive modifier) [TDT][CLIN]

Possessives and other genitive modifiers of nouns. The only genitive modifier not marked with the type poss is the genitive object.
  • Maijun uusi auto oli erittäin kallis. (Maijun)

preconj (preconjunction) [TDT][CLIN]

Preconjunctions. This type is used for the first part of a two-part coordinating conjunction, such as "sekä" in "sekä... että".
  • Tunnen sekä Timon että Tomin. (sekä)

prt (phrasal particle) [TDT][CLIN]

Phrasal particles of so called phrasal verbs.
  • Poliisi otti varkaan kiinni. (kiinni)

punct (punctuation) [TDT][CLIN]

Punctuation symbols, for which the head is the element which they delimit.

quantmod (quantifying modifier) [TDT][CLIN]

Quantifying modifiers of number expressions.
  • Kaupungissa on noin 15000 asukasta. (noin)

rcmod (relative clause modifier) [TDT][CLIN]

Relative clause modifiers, that is, relative clauses that are dependent on most commonly a single noun phrase, but sometimes also the whole preceding clause.
  • Pihalla on auto, joka kuuluu Matille. (joka kuuluu Matille)

ref (ref) [TDT][CLIN]

Referents, the words that are referred to by the relativizers in relative clauses. Not part of the syntactic tree but another layer of annotation, currently only present in the clinical Finnish treebank.
  • Pihalla on auto, joka kuuluu Matille. (auto)

rel (relativizer) [TDT][CLIN]

Relativizers, that is, the relative word or phrase in a relative clause.
  • Pihalla on auto, joka kuuluu Matille. (joka)

sdep (independent clause coordination) [TDT][CLIN]

Independent top level clause coordinations, where there are no common sentence elements between the clauses. Only present in the clinical Finnish treebank.
  • Hengitys ollut heikkoa, laitettu hengityskoneeseen. (laitettu)

voc (vocative) [TDT]

Vocatives, which generally identify the addressee. Only present in Turku Dependency Treebank.
  • Matti, tule tänne! (Matti)

xcomp (open clausal complement) [TDT][CLIN]

Open clausal complements, which have no subject of their own but whose reference is determined by an external subject.
  • Hän rupesi itkemään. (itkemään)

xsubj (external subject, controlling subject) [CLIN]

External subjects or controlling subjects. This type is used to mark the relation of an open clausal complement and its external subject. Not part of the syntactic tree but another layer of annotation, currently only present in the clinical Finnish treebank.
  • Hän rupesi itkemään. (Hän)